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Wednesday, March 25, 2009

Web Service in Java Sample

Go to web-inf\src :

use cp.bat to set classpath.
download the same jar and paste into ur lib folder..

set AXIS_HOME=C:\Tomcat5.0\webapps\axis



just paste into tomcat\webapps

(((( ex 1: ))))

1) create a java program and rename it as filename.jws
2) copy that filename.jws into tomcat\webapps\axis (project-root)
3) re/start tomcat

client run steps:
java CalcClient add 5 5

(((( ex 2: ))))
1) create a java program ""
2) set classpath and compile and place that .class into WEB-INF\classes folder
3) create a deploy.wsdd and undeploy.wsdd file and store into your area
4) run this wsdd cmd into cmd promt (( Note : tomcat server must be in run when u exectue this cmd )))

C:\Tomcat5.0\webapps\axis\WEB-INF\src> java org.apache.axis.client.AdminClient deploy.wsdd

5) restart the tomcat
6) check : http://localhost:8080/axis/servlet/AxisServlet

7) then run client... (change endpoint to point ur myservice)

public class Calculator {
public int add(int i1, int i2)
return i1 + i2;

public int subtract(int i1, int i2)
return i1 - i2;

set AXIS_HOME=C:\Tomcat5.0\webapps\axis
set AXISCLASSPATH=%AXIS_LIB%\axis.jar;%AXIS_LIB%\commons-discovery-0.2.jar;%AXIS_LIB%\wsdl4j-1.5.1.jar;%AXIS_LIB%\commons-logging-1.0.4.jar;%AXIS_LIB%\jaxrpc.jar;%AXIS_LIB%\saaj.jar;%AXIS_LIB%\log4j-1.2.8.jar;%AXIS_LIB%\xml-apis.jar;%AXIS_LIB%\xercesImpl.jar;%AXIS_LIB%\servlet-api.jar;
set classpath=".;%AXISCLASSPATH%";




//package samples.userguide.example2 ;

import org.apache.axis.client.Call;
import org.apache.axis.client.Service;
import org.apache.axis.encoding.XMLType;
import org.apache.axis.utils.Options;

import javax.xml.rpc.ParameterMode;

public class CalcClient
public static void main(String [] args) throws Exception {
Options options = new Options(args);

//this is for filename.jws
String endpoint = "http://localhost:" + options.getPort() + "/axis/Calculator.jws";

//this is for service after create C:\Tomcat5.0\webapps\axis\WEB-INF\src> java org.apache.axis.client.AdminClient deploy.wsdd
//String endpoint = "http://localhost:8080/axis/services/MyService";

args = options.getRemainingArgs();

if (args == null || args.length != 3) {
System.err.println("Usage: CalcClient arg1 arg2");

String method = args[0];
if (!(method.equals("add") || method.equals("subtract"))) {
System.err.println("Usage: CalcClient arg1 arg2");

Integer i1 = new Integer(args[1]);
Integer i2 = new Integer(args[2]);

Service service = new Service();
Call call = (Call) service.createCall();

call.setTargetEndpointAddress( new );
call.setOperationName( method );
call.addParameter( "op1", XMLType.XSD_INT, ParameterMode.IN );
call.addParameter( "op2", XMLType.XSD_INT, ParameterMode.IN );
call.setReturnType( XMLType.XSD_INT );

Integer ret = (Integer) call.invoke( new Object [] { i1, i2 });

System.out.println("Got result : " + ret);


Tuesday, March 24, 2009

Tight coupling versus loose coupling

Most large, complex systems are built as small collections of large subsystems instead of as large collections of small, independent subsystems. This is because of the potential for increased performance, security, economy, or some other key property that you can't get by decoupling the system into relatively independent, small elements. The tight coupling characteristics of large-scale systems generally result from optimizing the overall design and from minimizing redundancies and inefficiencies among the system's components. This results in closer coupling among the system's components and large numbers of critical interdependencies.

One disadvantage of tight coupling among a system's components is that failures within the individual components tend to disable the entire system. Loosely coupled Web services are seen as a better alternative; a Web service failure doesn't disable the entire system, provided a failover Web service server is in place.

You can change details in loosely coupled Web services as long as those changes don't affect the functionality of the called Web services. The tight-coupled systems can be difficult to maintain, because changes in one system subcomponent usually require the other subcomponent to adapt immediately.

Loosely coupled Web services require substantial redundancies unlike tight coupling between clients and service, which minimizes redundancies. The listening Web service and the requesting Web service might not trust each other. This means security and trust standards must be added to get both the listener and requester to trust each other. On the other hand, tightly calling and called coupled systems assume that both have the knowledge of what each requires to trust one another.

Monday, March 23, 2009

My exercise like Aghori

I did this with in 2 days of practice, just reverse fill ups and sitting like aghori..

See that Video (see my exercise)

SQL injection

SQL injection is a code injection technique that exploits a security vulnerability occurring in the database layer of an application. The vulnerability is present when user input is either incorrectly filtered for string literal escape characters embedded in SQL statements or user input is not strongly typed and thereby unexpectedly executed. It is an instance of a more general class of vulnerabilities that can occur whenever one programming or scripting language is embedded inside another. SQL injection attacks are also known as SQL insertion attacks.[1]

Forms of SQL injection vulnerabilities

[edit] Incorrectly filtered escape characters

This form of SQL injection occurs when user input is not filtered for escape characters and is then passed into a SQL statement. This results in the potential manipulation of the statements performed on the database by the end user of the application.

The following line of code illustrates this vulnerability:

statement = "SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = '" + userName + "';"

This SQL code is designed to pull up the records of the specified username from its table of users. However, if the "userName" variable is crafted in a specific way by a malicious user, the SQL statement may do more than the code author intended. For example, setting the "userName" variable as

a' or 't'='t

renders this SQL statement by the parent language:

SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'a' OR 't'='t';

If this code were to be used in an authentication procedure then this example could be used to force the selection of a valid username because the evaluation of 't'='t' is always true.

While most SQL Server implementations allow multiple statements to be executed with one call, some SQL APIs such as php's mysql_query do not allow this for security reasons. This prevents hackers from injecting entirely separate queries, but doesn't stop them from modifying queries. The following value of "userName" in the statement below would cause the deletion of the "users" table as well as the selection of all data from the "data" table (in essence revealing the information of every user):

a';DROP TABLE users; SELECT * FROM data WHERE name LIKE '%

This input renders the final SQL statement as follows:

SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'a';DROP TABLE users; SELECT * FROM DATA WHERE name LIKE '%';

[edit] Incorrect type handling

This form of SQL injection occurs when a user supplied field is not strongly typed or is not checked for type constraints. This could take place when a numeric field is to be used in a SQL statement, but the programmer makes no checks to validate that the user supplied input is numeric. For example:

statement := "SELECT * FROM data WHERE id = " + a_variable + ";"

It is clear from this statement that the author intended a_variable to be a number correlating to the "id" field. However, if it is in fact a string then the end user may manipulate the statement as they choose, thereby bypassing the need for escape characters. For example, setting a_variable to

1;DROP TABLE users

will drop (delete) the "users" table from the database, since the SQL would be rendered as follows:


[edit] Magic String

The magic string is a simple string of SQL used primarily at login pages. The magic string is


When used at a login page, you will be logged in as the user on top of the SQL table.

[edit] Vulnerabilities inside the database server

Sometimes vulnerabilities can exist within the database server software itself, as was the case with the MySQL server's mysql_real_escape_string() function[2]. This would allow an attacker to perform a successful SQL injection attack based on bad Unicode characters even if the user's input is being escaped.

[edit] Blind SQL Injection

Blind SQL Injection is used when a web application is vulnerable to SQL injection but the results of the injection are not visible to the attacker. The page with the vulnerability may not be one that displays data but will display differently depending on the results of a logical statement injected into the legitimate SQL statement called for that page. This type of attack can become time-intensive because a new statement must be crafted for each bit recovered. There are several tools that can automate these attacks once the location of the vulnerability and the target information has been established.[3]

[edit] Conditional Responses

One type of blind SQL injection forces the database to evaluate a logical statement on an ordinary application screen.

SELECT booktitle FROM booklist WHERE bookId = 'OOk14cd' AND 1=1

will result in a normal page while

SELECT booktitle FROM booklist WHERE bookId = 'OOk14cd' AND 1=2

will likely give a different result if the page is vulnerable to a SQL injection. An injection like this will prove that a blind SQL injection is possible, leaving the attacker to devise statements that evaluate to true or false depending on the contents of a field in another table.[4]

[edit] Conditional Errors

This type of blind SQL injection causes a SQL error by forcing the database to evaluate a statement that causes an error if the WHERE statement is true. For example,

SELECT 1/0 FROM users WHERE username='Ralph'

the division by zero will only be evaluated and result in an error if user Ralph exists.

[edit] Time Delays

Time Delays are a type of blind SQL injection that cause the SQL engine to execute a long running query or a time delay statement depending on the logic injected. The attacker can then measure the time the page takes to load to determine if the injected statement is true.

[edit] Preventing SQL Injection

To protect against SQL injection, user input must not directly be embedded in SQL statements. Instead, parameterized statements must be used (preferred), or user input must be carefully escaped or filtered.

[edit] Using Parameterized Statements

In some programming languages such as Java and .NET parameterized statements can be used that work with parameters (sometimes called placeholders or bind variables) instead of embedding user input in the statement. In many cases, the SQL statement is fixed. The user input is then assigned (bound) to a parameter. This is an example using Java and the JDBC API:

PreparedStatement prep = conn.prepareStatement("SELECT * FROM USERS WHERE USERNAME=? AND PASSWORD=?");
prep.setString(1, username);
prep.setString(2, password);

Similarly, in C#:

using (SqlCommand myCommand = new SqlCommand("SELECT * FROM USERS WHERE USERNAME=@username AND PASSWORD=HASHBYTES('SHA1', @password)", myConnection))
myCommand.Parameters.AddWithValue("@username", user);
myCommand.Parameters.AddWithValue("@password", pass);

SqlDataReader myReader = myCommand.ExecuteReader())

In PHP version 5 and above, you have multiple choices for using parameterized statements. The easiest is to use the PDO[5] database layer:

$db = new PDO('pgsql:dbname=database');
$stmt = $db->prepare("SELECT priv FROM testUsers WHERE username=:username AND password=:password");
$stmt->bindParam(':username', $user);
$stmt->bindParam(':password', $pass);

Alternatively, you could use a vendor-specific method. For example in MySQL 4.1 and above with the mysqli[6] extension. Example[7]:

$db = new mysqli("localhost", "user", "pass", "database");
$stmt = $db -> prepare("SELECT priv FROM testUsers WHERE username=? AND password=?");
$stmt -> bind_param("ss", $user, $pass);
$stmt -> execute();

In ColdFusion, the CFQUERYPARAM statement is useful in conjunction with the CFQUERY statement to nullify the effect of SQL code passed within the CFQUERYPARAM value as part of the SQL clause.[8] [9]. An example is below.


[edit] Enforcing the Use of Parameterized Statements

There are two ways to ensure an application is not vulnerable to SQL injection: using code reviews (which is a manual process), and enforcing the use of parameterized statements. Enforcing the use of parameterized statements means that SQL statements with embedded user input are rejected at runtime. Currently only the H2 Database Engine supports this feature.

[edit] Using Escaping

A straight-forward, though error-prone way to prevent injections is to escape dangerous characters. One of the reasons for it being error prone is that it is a type of blacklist which is less robust than a whitelist. For instance, every occurrence of a single quote (') in a parameter must be replaced by two single quotes ('') to form a valid SQL string literal. In PHP, for example, it is usual to escape parameters using the function mysql_real_escape_string before sending the SQL query:

$query = sprintf("SELECT * FROM Users where UserName='%s' and Password='%s'",

Here is an example of a custom escaping based sql injection filter. It doesn't rely on built in escaping functions:

$title = $_POST['title']; // user input from site
$description = $_POST['description']; // user input from site

// define the cleaner

$dirtystuff = array("\"", "\\", "/", "*", "'", "=", "-", "#", ";", "<", ">", "+", "%");

// clean user input (if it finds any of the values above, it will replace it with whatever is in the quotes - in this example, it replaces the value with nothing)

$title = str_replace($dirtystuff, "", $title); // works!
$description = str_replace($dirtystuff, "", $description); // works!

// input: I\ "like/ green<** veg'et=a-bles> ;and< pizza**
// output: I like green vegetables and pizza

// input: a';DROP TABLE users; SELECT * FROM data WHERE name LIKE '%
// output: aDROP TABLE users SELECT FROM data WHERE name LIKE


This sort of escaping is error-prone as it relies on the programmer to escape every parameter. Also, if the escape function (either custom or built-in in the language) fails to handle a special character correctly, an injection is still possible.

A copy taken from WIKI

Thursday, March 5, 2009

sample dismissal or termination of employment letter

This is a general example of a termination letter. UK employers should refer to the process outlined on the dispute resolution summary page which is law effective from 1st October 2004, and also to the samples of disciplinary action and dismissal hearings letters templates below.

name, address, date, reference

Dear Mr/Ms/etc .........

Further to our meeting of (date) I (regretfully) confirm that your employment with us is terminated with effect from (date)/with immediate effect.

As stated at our meeting the reason(s) for terminating your employment with us is/are as follows:

* (Employer must clearly state reasons - transgressions and relevant policies if applicable)
* (Employer must clearly state previous warnings, informal, formal, written etc., and circumstances and person's response and subsequent behaviour/performance for each warning.)

(Clearly state requirements regarding return of documentation, equipment, car, submission of final expenses claims, and any other leaving administration issues.)

(Clearly state actual leaving date, requirement or otherwise to serve period of notice, holiday pay, and other pay and pension details.)

(Clearly state the position regarding the employee's right of appeal, and state the appeal process and timescales.)

(Optional sign-off, for example: Thank you for your past efforts and all the best for your future endeavours.)

Yours, etc.

name and position

(Optionally and recommended: attach, at the foot of the letter refer to, a copy of your written disciplinary process, and also attach and refer to copies of written/printed evidence gathered during the employee's case. This enables employees to understand clearly the case against them, and also the process and their rights during the disciplinary process, which are central to the principles of the employment dispute regulations.)

(Optional section at foot of letter, requiring person to sign, confirming receipt of the letter and any attachment(s), by way of returning a signed copy of this letter.)

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